THE CENTENARY ANNIVERSARY OF MY GRANDMOTHER’S BIRTH

THE LIFE STORY OF ELIZABETH CADDEN

This blog post is to commemorate the life story of my maternal grandmother, Elizabeth May Cadden, who was born 100 years ago on 25th August 1918 at Crumlin Road in Belfast.

My grandmother was the daughter of Thomas Cadden and Maud Stevens who married in St Matthews Church, Belfast in February 1918.

There is a story to my grandmother’s conception. Thomas Cadden was from Co Fermanagh and Maud Stevens’ family had been living between Ballymoney, Co Antrim and Belfast. Maud’s mother (her father John had died in an asylum in 1905, see my previous blog post on John’s stay in Harthill asylum) had brought her family up as Church of Ireland and took in boarders in Belfast. Maud’s mother decided to take in the Catholic lodger Thomas Cadden who then got my great-grandmother pregnant with my grandmother. A household of mixed religion in Belfast was not a wise thing to do (and my mother has a theory that Thomas Cadden must have been a friend of the family or known to the family because Maud’s mother was a very sensible woman who would not have taken in a Catholic lodger into a Church of Ireland household in Belfast).

My grandmother was the eldest of 5 children.

This is my grandmother with her brother John:

Elizabeth Cadden and John Cadden late 1930s

 

The extended family stayed in Belfast and Ballymoney until my grandmother was aged 7 and then they all moved to Glasgow. There were 2 reasons for the move to Glasgow. My grandmother was ill and could not get appropriate medical treatment in Ireland but the whole family was in danger. To quote my great-grandmother, burning papers had been put through their letterbox in order to burn the house down because they were a mixed religion household.

When my grandmother moved to Glasgow, they lived in the Lambhill and Ruchill areas of Glasgow. My grandmother was too ill to go to school for the first year after she arrived in Glasgow, then she attended one year at primary school and subsequently attended Garnethill Convent School until the age of 14.   Her daughter Doreen was later to also attend Garnethill Convent School. My grandmother was the only person in her group to pass the intelligence test to enter Garnethill because she was the only one that could read a clock correctly in a mirror. At Garnethill my grandmother was to meet a lifelong friend, Margaret Masterton, who coincidentally was from the same town (Buncrana in Co Donegal) where my grandmother’s future father-in-law was from.

This is my grandmother (on the right) with Margaret Masterton:

Elizabeth Cadden and Margaret Masterton

My grandmother had to leave school at 14 due to family finances and was immediately employed in the cash-room at the Colosseum in Jamaica Street. Again, due to family finances, my grandmother had to go to work dressed in her school uniform. At the outbreak of war, my grandmother became a tailor’s assistant for a Mr Archibald and she made the RAF and Army uniforms for her brothers, future husband and future brothers-in-law. She was also a fire watcher during the War.

She met her husband-to-be, William Armour, at a St Andrews Ambulance dance at Glasgow University Union (the exact same building where her eldest daughter would meet her husband at a dance) and they married in January 1944 at St Agnes Church, Lambhill.

This is my grandparent’s wedding photo:

Elizabeth Cadden and William Armour

 

I now have the letters that my grandparents exchanged in the run up to their wedding as my grandfather was serving in the RAF in England right up until days before their wedding and my grandparents made all the wedding decisions by post. My grandmother was also extremely close to her grandmother, Maud’s mother Elizabeth Gamble, and I love the details in these wartime letters of how my grandmother enjoyed her grandmother’s company.

This is my grandmother with her grandmother, Elizabeth Gamble, and my grandmother’s great-aunt Sarah Gamble (right):

Elizabeth Cadden, Elizabeth Gamble and Sarah Gamble

 

After my grandparents married they initially lived in the Armour family tenement flat in Kelvinbridge until it was on the verge of being demolished by Glasgow Corporation and my grandparents then bought, with a great struggle, their family home in Broomhill where they were to live for the rest of their lives.

My grandmother didn’t work for a number of years whilst she brought up her daughters, Doreen, my mother, and Kathleen, who died 3 years ago.

This is my grandparents with my auntie Kathleen:

Elizabeth Cadden, William Armour and Kathleen Armour

 

When my grandmother started working again, she had many different jobs (in particular many manual jobs whilst her husband was ill and unable to work) until she settled in shop work in 2 famous Glasgow department stores.

My grandmother worked as a cleaner at the Western Infirmary, worked as a cleaner in the West End of Glasgow and then worked for a psychologist in the West End of Glasgow. My grandmother then joined the department store Frasers (in the current shop in Buchanan Street) in the china department and she subsequently worked for Gordon Brothers in Glassford Street in the china and crystal department in that department store. After my grandmother had retired from Gordon Brothers, she was held in such esteem that she was asked back to Frasers to work in their bathroom department.

After my grandmother eventually retired, she enjoyed spending time with her 4 grandchildren.

This is my grandmother, my mum, me and my cousins:

Elizabeth Cadden, my Mum, me and 2 of my cousins

My grandfather died in 1990 and my grandmother continued to live in the family home in Broomhill supported by her daughters until she broke her hip and never managed to walk again. She spent a final few months in the Nazareth House care home in Cardonald where her daughter Doreen had volunteered in the early 1970s when it was a children’s home.

Elizabeth Cadden died on 9 June 2006 aged 87 at the Southern General Hospital.

 

 

 

 

Health before and after asylum admission – part 3 of ‘Ancestors in the Asylums’

Hi all.

Since I last blogged, I have been researching my great, great grandfather, John Stevens, who was resident in Hartwood Asylum, at North Lanarkshire Archives in Motherwell.

What really struck me was the difference in John’s mental state before and after his admission to the asylum.  It’s almost as if John knew he was ill when he was living with his wife and then his mother but neither of them could cope and, when he was admitted to the asylum, he was looked after by people who knew how to help him.

As a reminder,  here are the descriptions of John’s health before he was admitted to the asylum:

He lies in bed and is dull and apathetic and refuses to rise. He says he was employed with Robinson and Charon in New York (he was employed with the firm in Belfast). He keeps on saying that ‘it is down’ constantly referring to his rupture [that is a hernia], he states it is not ruptured and that his testicles are down.

Patient’s mother states that he wanted a doctor, he put on a new tie for him, that he exposes himself indecently in the house and that he is sometimes afraid to sit down in case of breaking his testicle. James Stevens [his brother] states that patient blamed his mother for bringing down the rupture and was going to strike her and that he walks around the house with his trousers down.

He is considerably demented his memory is very poor.  He is also very irritable, his speech is quite incoherent and he cannot give a rational account of his doings.

 

James Stevens his brother says he is very depressed and that at times he becomes excited and violent. He is guilty of indecent exposure of his person.

I was pleased for John that, one month after his admission, his medical problems had been investigated and a diagnosis given:

29th March 1904

This patient has a dull heavy complexion. He is considerably demented and is childish and incoherent in his speech. His memory is greatly impaired. He has great enlargement of the nose and facial bones and very large hands. The appearance suggests acromegaly [a disorder that results from excess growth hormone].

I was fascinated by the fact that John’s doctors had compared the size of his hands and feet to that of a ‘normal’ person and the tracings of John’s hands and feet had actually survived for me, his great, great-grand-daughter, to touch and view (with John’s hand being the black outline):

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I was interested to discover from John’s medical notes that he was still extremely ill in the asylum but he seemed a  lot more contented:

22nd July 1904

This patient is considerably demented. His expression is fatuous and silly. He is very childish and presents a very real picture of ‘second childhood’, both speech and conduct are infantile in nature. His memory is considerable impaired, both for present and remote events but specially for the former and it costs him an undue almost painful effort to recall many of the major incidents of his life such as his work, his marriage, his family etc which ought to be remembered with a minimum of effort and it is with displeasure that he receives any questions which have as their object the investigation of his life history and with relief that he returns to the happy life he leads now, free from all care and responsibility. Living in the present and for the present neither looking backwards nor forwards, no incidents became of an unpleasant nature and no schemes necessary for the future.   He seems perfectly contented with himself and his surroundings and is like a growing child receiving new impressions day by day gazing with often wondering eyes at the pictures on the walls, at the newspapers and of the windows and so on. Yesterday he had a small piece of a newspaper and followed them up and down the ward and pointed out repeatedly when and as capable 3 or 4 advertisements saying ‘See this’, ‘That is good.’ and so like a child who after learning something, lets everybody know how clever it is. His speech is slow and hesitating when asked questions regarding any effort to answer but not to slow and with some animation when he is allowed to speak about the subject which interests him and he is often interrupted by childish laughter, occurring without any apparent cause, but suggestive of the glee which a child displays on showing to others its cleverness or its mastery of something new. Of course he is unlike a child in that there’s no mental growth. Mentally he appears the same today as on admission, if anything perhaps more contented and more obedient, having settled down into a regular routine and not requiring the persuasion he did at first before doing what he is asked to do. His habits are moderately clean and he requires to be well looked after on his account of his occasional lapses.

I thought I would finish this blog post with a little more of John’s life story.

When John was admitted to the asylum in March 1904, he left a wife and 3 small children (aged 6 years, 4 years and 7 months) behind in Belfast.

This is John’s middle child, his only daughter, named Maud, who would become my great-grandmother:

nana

Maud was obviously too young to understand what happened to her Daddy but I reckon she would have been old enough to understand that her Daddy had disappeared.  In this photo I would say Maud is maybe aged 6 or 7 and she doesn’t look very happy.  (Actually when I review our surviving photos of Maud, she only actually looks happy after she married, perhaps her family life without her Daddy was so hard and her family suffered so badly).  Maud lived until 1995 and is still remembered as a true matriarch of our family.

Finally, I have been racking my brain as to where John was buried.  His wife and her children and grandchildren emigrated from Belfast to Glasgow in 1925 and John is therefore not buried with his wife in Tollcross cemetery, Glasgow or with his daughter Maud in St Kentigern’s cemetery, Glasgow.  I also discovered that John was not buried in the cemetery at Hartwood asylum indicating that his body had been ‘claimed’ by his family.

I then wondered if his mother and siblings in Rutherglen might have buried John in Rutherglen.  I e-mailed the Bereavement Services department at South Lanarkshire council and they confirmed that John was indeed buried in Rutherglen cemetery with his parents and brother.

My good friend and colleague Jane at Turnstone Genealogy in Rutherglen was kind enough this week to go and find John’s last resting place for me:

As you can see the family headstone is rather broken but, as a family, we will see if we can get it repaired and we will take some flowers in tribute to John.

I hope you’ve found reading about John Stevens interesting.  I’m really discovering so much more about my ancestors via their asylum records.

I will hope to share with you in a few weeks some more of the surviving medical records for my ‘Ancestors in Asylums’.  I’m also looking forward to exploring surviving poor law records for my ancestors who were in asylums.

Sources used: Hartwood Asylum Case Books accessed at North Lanarkshire Archives, Motherwell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why were my ancestors in asylums – part 2 of ‘Ancestors in the Asylums’

This week I have spent 2 afternoons in the National Records of Scotland and one afternoon in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Archive trying to find out exactly why my ancestors were placed in asylums.  In this blog post, I’m going to share with you the reasons for John Milne Hunter, Jane Mann and John Stevens going into asylums.

I’ve spent the week on the verge of tears many times at the thought of how mentally ill my ancestors were so I am interested in your reactions.

Along the way this week I’ve discovered yet another ancestor who was in an asylum.  A questionnaire was completed on entrance to the asylum and one question was ‘was anyone else in the family insane’. And another name joined the list of ‘lunatics’ …

John Milne Hunter

As a reminder, John was the brother of my great, great grandfather and was in the Govan Parochial Asylum also known as Merryflats for 5 months in 1884, was transferred from Merryflats to the Barony Parochial Asylum also known as Woodilee for 5 months from 1884 to 1885 and then back to Merryflats from 1896 until his death in 1925.

This is Merryflats:

govan-merryflats-asylum

When John first went into an asylum in 1884, he had been discharged from the army as insane 14 days beforehand and it was believed his insanity derived from a head injury.  John was noted as being dangerous to others.

The first doctor that examined him said of him: ‘Very excitable and delusive. Talks incoherently. Has a wild looking appearance and conducts himself strangely. His mother states that he is restless and that she has to watch and humour him.’

The second doctor that examined him said of him: ‘Is very excited looking and incoherent. Mutters to himself about going under. Keeps constantly expectorating and turning on the water tap. His mother states that he was discharged from the army as insane on the 1st July and that he has threatened his brother and sister with a poker.’ Expectorating meaning coughing up phlegm.

When John is readmitted in 1896, his mental health has clearly taken a turn for the worse.

The first doctor that examined him said of him: ‘ Lies in bed quite naked, refuses to speak or answer questions. His mother states that he has been strange in his manner for some time, is sometimes violent, is refusing his food and has been in the asylum before’.

The second doctor that examined him said of him: ‘Found him in bed but when questioned would not answer but covered his head and behaved in an insane manner.  His mother states that he has been strange since October and that he has ben getting worse and was found by the police wandering about and behaving strangely.’

I am now beginning to access John’s medical notes which I will share in a future blog post.

Jane Mann

As a reminder Jane was the first cousin of my great, great-grandmother.  Jane was in Inverness asylum for 7 months between 1896 and 1897 and then in the same asylum for 40 years and 2 months from 1901 until her death in 1941.

This is Inverness asylum:

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When Jane was admitted the first time, she was said to be rather dangerous to others!

The first doctor that examined her said of her: ‘ Talks incessantly in an incoherent manner, has seen visions and heard voices from the sky. Talks of people whom she does not know as passing under various aliases and being friends of hers. Her mother informs me that she has threatened to strike her without any reason and has told her she has seen her father who is dead and continually talks nonsense.’

The second doctor that saw her said of her: ‘Continually talking incoherently, has seen visions of several persons constantly in the room. Has an idea that one or two people wish to harm and injure her, has the appearance of an insane person.  Her sister mentions that during the past 5 or 7 weeks she has had violent attacks of excitement and has threatened to strike both she and her mother.’

Unfortunately by the time Jane was readmitted she was now suicidal.

When Jane was readmitted, the first doctor said of her: ‘She talks of seeing and hearing people at night who do not exist and thinks she is in danger and she talks of drowning herself.   Her sister Bella Mann informs me that she has repeatedly threatened to do away with herself and is constantly seeing people and hearing voices who do not exist.’

 

The second doctor that saw her when she was readmitted said: ‘Has an odd melancholy look, has a delusion that people went about her house and were going to take her to prison because she had done something wrong.  Has a feeling that she is to harm her mother and sister. Mr John MacBean, Assistant Inspector of Poor, Inverness says that she imagines that people come into the house by the window to do her harm. Wants to drown herself because she imagines she has done harm to her sister and mother.’

I am looking forward with interest to seeing what records for Jane’s stay have survived in Inverness Archives.

John Stevens

As a reminder John was my great, great grandfather and was in Hartwood Asylum near Shotts for a year from March 1904 until his death in February 1905.

This is Hartwood Asylum:

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I have always been curious as to why John died in Shotts when his wife and children were in Belfast.  I have discovered that some of his family were living in Rutherglen (21 miles from Shotts) and I suspect that, going by how much his mental health had deteriorated (see below), I now believe that his wife was concerned about the effect his behaviour would have on their young children (aged 7, 5 and 1 at the time of his admission).

When John was admitted he was said to be a danger to others.

The first doctor that examined John on admission to the asylum said of him: ‘He lies in bed and is dull and apathetic and refuses to rise. He says he was employed with Robinson and Charon in New York (he was employed with the firm in Belfast). He keeps on saying that ‘it is down’ constantly referring to his rupture, he states it is not rupture and that his testicles are down. Patient’s mother states that he exposes himself indecently in the house and that he is sometimes afraid to sit down in case of breaking his testicle. James Stevens (his brother) states that patient blamed his mother for bring down the rupture and was going to strike her and that he walks around the house with his trousers down.’

The second doctor that saw John was of the following opinion: ‘He is considerably demented, his memory is very poor, he is also very irritable, his speech is quite incoherent and he cannot give a rational account of his doings.  James Stevens his brother says he is very depressed and that at times he becomes excited and violent. He is guilty of indecent exposure of his person.’

In a few weeks I am going to investigate what records have survived for John’s stay in Hartwood Asylum at North Lanarkshire Archives

My gut instinct, when I realised how many ancestors I my family tree were in asylums, was that it was not going to be good news and not simply menopause or depression.  However I am still quite shocked.  Besides seeking further records for these poor souls, I am now interested in researching what their living conditions were like at these particular ancestors and how well they were cared for.

(Source of the information in this blog post: Notices of the Admissions by the Superintendents of the Mental Institutions, series MC2, National Records of Scotland).

 

 

 

Ancestors in the asylum – part 1

5 of my relatively close ancestors died in asylums between the 1870s and the 1940s and I have decided this summer to trace the details of their time in the asylum. 4 were in public asylums and 1 was in a private asylum. Their asylum stays ranged from 1 year to 40 years. 3 were related, a grandfather and 2 grandchildren. I’m particularly interested in why they were admitted to the asylum. This blogpost is intended to serve as an introduction to my asylum research.

JOHN STEVENS

John was my 2 times great grandfather. He was born in 1861 in Ettrick, Selkirkshire to John Stevens and Elizabeth Tullie and married Elizabeth Gamble in Ballymoney in 1895.

The General Register of Lunatics in Asylums tells me that John was admitted as a pauper (ie under the poor law system) to Hartwood Asylum, Shotts and he was there for 12 months until his death in February 1905. He died from acromegaly (a hormonal disorder causing bones to increase in size) and acute endocarditis (a heart infection).

This is Hartwood Asylum:

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I intend searching for John in the Hartwood Asylum records and the North Lanarkshire poor law records ay North Lanarkshire archives and in the national asylum records at National Records of Scotland.

ALLAN MCDONALD

Allan McDonald was my 4 times great grandfather. 2 of his grandchildren were also in asylums. Allan was born in the parish of Southend in Argyllshire in 1795 to John McDonald and Mary McLachlan. He married Mary Ann Cameron in the same parish in 1827.

I know that Allan was in the private asylum, Sir Gabriel Wood’s Mariners Asylum in Greenock in 1861 and he died there in 1870 after a stay of at least 9 years. He died from asthma and chronic bronchitis.

This is Allan:

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This is Sir Gabriel Wood’s Mariners Asylum:

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This is a private asylum and its records have not been deposited in any archive. The trustees don’t have the historical records. However the asylum still exists as a care home and I am waiting to hear if the home has retained its historical records. Otherwise I intend researching this private asylum in newspapers and libraries.

MARY ANN HUNTER

Mary Ann was the sister of my 2 times great grandfather and the granddaughter of Allan McDonald mentioned above. Mary Ann was born in 1860 in Arbroath to Alexander Hunter and Mary Ann McDonald.

The General Register of Lunatics in Asylums tells me that Mary Ann was admitted to Kirklands Asylum in May 1910 as a pauper and was transferred 16 months later to Govan Asylum which was at Leverndale Hospital, Renfrewshire. She died there in August 1923 after 12 years and 1 month at Leverndale. She died from cholecystitis (inflammation of gall bladder) and gall stones.

This is Leverndale Hospital:

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I intend researching Mary Ann in the national asylum records at the National Records of Scotland, in the poor law records at the Glasgow City Archives and in the Govan and Kirklands asylum records at the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Archives.

JOHN MILNE HUNTER

John was the brother of my 2 times great grandfather, the brother of Mary Ann Hunter and the grandson of Allan McDonald (both mentioned above).

John was born in Arbroath to Alexander Hunter and Mary Ann McDonald.

The General Register of Lunatics in Asylums tells me that John had 2 spells in asylums. John was admitted to Govan asylum as a pauper in July 1884 and was transferred 5 months later to Barony Asylum (also known as Woodilee, Lenzie) from which he was discharged as recovered another 5 months later in March 1885. John was readmitted to Govan Asylum in July 1896 where he was to die 28 years and 8 months later in February 1925. John died of a stroke.

This is Woodilee:

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I intend researching John in the national asylum records in the National Records of Scotland, in the asylum records at the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Archives and in the poor law records at the Glasgow City Archives.

JANE MANN 

Jane was the 1st cousin of my 2 times great grandmother. She was born in the parish of Daviot and Dunlichity in Inverness-shire in 1870 to James Mann and Ann McCulloch.

The General Register of Lunatics in Asylums tells me that Jane was admitted to Inverness Asylum as a pauper in January 1901 and she was to die there after 40 years and 2 months in Inverness Asylum in February 1941. Jane died from senile dementia.

This is Inverness Asylum:

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Unfortunately I know from previous research that the relevant poor law records haven’t survived. However I intend researching Jane in the Inverness Asylum records in the Highland Archives and in the national asylum records in the National Records of Scotland.

My next blogpost will be published in June with an update on my asylum research.

Searching for an emigrant for 15 years

This is the story of how I helped a distant cousin, Kate in Maryland, USA to find out about her great, great grandfather, whose origins she had been trying to trace for 15 years, using a combination of DNA family history research and traditional paper based family history research.

For those who haven’t tried it yet, there are 3 types of DNA tests used in family history research (Y DNA, mitochondrial DNA and autosomal DNA) all of which can be used to connect with cousins and investigate ethnicity.

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In this case my autosomal DNA had matched with that of Kate in Maryland, USA and Kate had a tree on the My Heritage website where I spotted her great, great grandfather John Lees Barr born in Scotland around 1860. Now this caught my attention because I have ancestors with the surnames of Lees and Barr on my maternal line.

Now it should have been simply a case of looking for a John Lees Barr born in Scotland around 1860 and such an unusual name should have been easy. However I know from years of researching my Barr family that Lees is often used as a middle name but never in the official records. Therefore unsurprisingly there was no John Lees Barr and lots of John Barrs born in Scotland around 1860.

As a result my next step was to find John Lees Barr in the USA records and work backwards. I found John’s death certificate on the Ancestry website. He had died in Pennsylvania in 1928 and his death certificate named his Scottish parents. From there I traced back 118 years to the birth in 1810 of his grandfather John Barr who was the son of my 4 times great grandparents, John Barr and Agnes Lees.  So I discovered that Kate in Maryland and my mum are 4th cousins with the same 3 times great grandparents.

This is Annie Barr, the daughter of John Barr who emigrated to the USA and the grandmother of Kate in Maryland:

Anne Jones Barr Schmoll.jpg

When I contacted Kate she was absolutely thrilled as she had been searching for the Scottish roots of her great, great grandfather for 15 years but had got absolutely nowhere! I’m finishing this story with Kate’s reaction: ‘Oh I hope you can feel it because I am hugging you like crazy in my head.’